泛亚电竞

如何正确理解“展业三原则”——改革以来外汇管理的一些概念阐述

发布:泛亚电竞_泛亚电竞app怎么下载-官网APP下载 2014-03-09 09:12 来源:泛亚电竞_泛亚电竞app怎么下载-官网APP下载 《中国外汇》2015年第3期 作者:吴水平
外汇管理要求银行按照“展业三原则”审查外汇业务是一个制度进步,但据此说外汇管理由“规则监管”转变为“原则监管”则是不妥当的,是一种误导...

泛亚电竞 jinqi,yourenrenwei,gaigeyihouwaihuiguanliyaoqiuyinxinganzhao“zhanyesanyuanze”shenchawaihuiyewu,you“guizejianguan”bianchengle“yuanzejianguan”,youyuguoyulongtongernanyibawo,yingxihua“zhanyesanyuanze”;yeyourentichu,“zhanyesanyuanze”jintingliuzaibiaomian,quefapeitaozhiduhexihuaguiding,quefakecaozuoxing,daozhiqinanyizhenzhengluodi。bizheyiwei: waihuiguanliyaoqiuyinxinganzhao“zhanyesanyuanze”shenchawaihuiyewushiyigezhidujinbu,danjucishuowaihuiguanliyou“guizejianguan”zhuanbianwei“yuanzejianguan”zeshibutuodangde,shiyizhongwudao。shijishang,“zhanyesanyuanze”bingfeiwaihuijuduiyinxingtichudeyaoqiu,ershiyinxingyezhanyedejibenyaoqiu;waihuijuyewuxuduiyinxingde“zhanyesanyuanze”jinxingxihua,ershiyaocongwaihuiguanlidejiaodujianduyinxingdui“zhanyesanyuanze”jinxingxihua。jianyuwaihuiguanligaigedexitongxing、luojixinghezhengtixing,bizhepaozhuanyinyu,jiangwaihuiguanligaigezhongxiangguan“zhanyesanyuanze”deyixiegainianjinxingshulibingjiayichengqing,bingjieshi“zhanyesanyuanze”yuyinxing“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”deneizailianxi。

银行“代位监管”不成立

泛亚电竞 muqian,youxiejicengwaihuijuzhengzaizuoyinxing“daiweijianguan”dewenzhang。qishi,waihuiguanliyouyinxing“daiweijianguan”degainianyijingbunengchenglile。

yishifalvshangbuchengli。waihuijushixingzhengjiguan,yinxingshishangyejigou,genju《xingzhengxukefa》deguiding,xingzhengjiguanbunengxiangshangyejigoushouquan,shangyejigoumeiyouxingzhengquan、bunengdaiweixingshixingzhengjiguandequanli。

泛亚电竞 ershiluojishangbuchengli。yinxingzuoweishangyejigoubunengjishiyundongyuanyoushicaipanyuan,fouzehuixingchengyouxiguizedeluojichongtu。

sanshijingjishangbuchengli。“daiweijianguan”xuyaofuchujianguanchengben,meiyouduijiashouru,shangyejigoubuhuizuozheiyangdekuibenshengyi,hekuangyoushidezuikehu、yingxiangzijishengyideshi。

泛亚电竞 sishishijianshangbuchengli。youyushangyeliyidezuoyong,yinqishihezuohuoban,“daiweijianguan”zhishiyixiangqingyuan,xiaoguohencha。

wushi“daiweijianguan”queshizailishishangyouguo,danneishizai《xingzhengxukefa》shishiqian,erqieyinxingshiguojiayinxingshiqi。biruzuichuyouzhongguoyinxingxingshiwaihuiguanlizhineng,zaibiruhoulaidewaihuijushouquanwaihuizhidingyinxingshenhemouxiewaihuiyewudeng。suoyi,yiqianjiang“daiweijianguan”meiyouwenti,xianzaizaijiang“daiweijianguan”jiubuheshile。

“真实性审查”是银行的法定义务,不是“代位监管”

bizherenwei,“daiweijianguan”decuojuezhuyaolaiziduiyinxingjinxing“zhenshixingshencha”dexiangguanguiding。duici,xuyaoshuliqingchu。《waihuiguanlitiaoli》dishiertiaoguiding: “jingyingjiehui、shouhuiyewudejinrongjigouyingdanganzhaoguowuyuanwaihuiguanlibumendeguiding,duijiaoyidanzhengdezhenshixingjiqiyuwaihuishouzhideyizhixingjinxinghelishencha。”zheibiaoming,“zhenshixingshencha”shiguojiafalvguidingyinxingzhutixulvxingdeyiwu。yinxingkaimenzuoshengyi,jiuyaolvxingqifadingyiwu。jiuwaihuiyewueryan,jinxing“zhenshixingshencha”,shiyinxingbixulvxingdefadingyiwu,erbushitiwaihuiju“daiweijianguan”。conglingyigejiaodukan,waihuijuyiqianduiwaihuizhidingyinxingdeyewushenheshouquanwenjianjingfaguiqingliyibeifeizhi,meiyouleshouquan,youhelai“daiweijianguan”?

泛亚电竞 youyushifadingyiwu,bushitiwaihuiju“daiweijianguan”,suoyi,yinxing“zhenshixingshencha”zuoduile,shiyinxingjinleyiwu,shiyinggaide;zuocuolehuomeiyouzuo,shiyinxingmeiyoujindaoyiwu,yingchengdanweifa、huoduzhi、huoshuhudengzeren。zheixiezerenyousheilaizhuijiu?duici,《waihuiguanlitiaoli》mingqueguiding,“waihuiguanlijiguanyouquanduiqiankuanguidingshixiangjinxingjiandujiancha”,jishouquanwaihuijuduiyinxinglvxingfadingyiwuqingkuangjinxingjiandujiancha。ruguoyinxingshi“daiweijianguan”,neimeyinxingzuocuole,waihuijujiuyouliandaizeren,yinwei,tashitinizuoshi,huozheshinishouquantazuode,falishangjiuyouliandaizeren。zhenderuci,waihuijudejiandujianchaquanyejiubuchenglile。kejian,anzhao《waihuiguanlitiaoli》dishiertiaodeguiding,“zhenshixingshencha”duiyinxingshi“fadingyiwu”,waihuijudezhizeshi“jiandujiancha”yinxingzhutilvxingyiwudeqingkuang。

在“真实性审查”中外汇局的职责是监督检查

feichangmingque,duiyujingchangxiangmuwaihuishouzhi,waihuijubuzuodiyixiandezhenshixingshenhecaozuo,diyixiandezhenshixingshenhecaozuoanfalvguidingyingyouyinxinglaizuo。neime,waihuijuzuoshenmeni?yishizuoyinxingzhenshixingshenchadeguidingsheji,ershiduiyinxingzhutilvzhiqingkuangjinxingjiandujiancha。suizhezibenxiangmukeduihuanhexingzhengxukedejianshao,waihuijuduizibenxiangmuwaihuishouzhideyixianhezhunyezaidafudujianshaohuoruohua。zhengtishang,waihuijushiduiyinxingzhutizhenshixingshenchayiwulvxingqingkuangxingshijiandujianchaquan。waihuijuxingshijiandujianchaquandexingshiyou: xianchangdejiancha、choucha;feixianchangdezonglianghecha、zhubihecha;shujuhedui、renyuanxunwen;diannaosaomiao、rengonghedui;danganfucha,jiaoyifushendengdeng。kejian,waihuijushijiandujianchabumen,bushijuticaozuobumen。

银行负责“真实性审查” 的具体操作

genju《waihuiguanlitiaoli》,yinxingjuticaozuowaihuiyewudezhenshixingshencha,baohanyixiajifangmian:

yishiyinxingzaizuowaihuiyewushiyaolvxingfadingyiwu,jinxingzhenshixingshencha,suimeiyouduijiabaochou,danxiangyoufadingquanli。

ershitadefadingyiwushijiedingqingxide,yousandian: anzhaoguowuyuanwaihuiguanlibumendeguidingjinxingshencha、duijiaoyidanzhengdezhenshixingjinxingshencha、duijiaoyidanzhengyuwaihuishouzhideyizhixingjinxingshencha。

泛亚电竞 sanshizhixingwaihuiguanlibumendeguiding。gaigeyiqiandeguidingshishenhejutidanzheng,danzhengqiquanjiuhegui,shaoyigedanzhengjiuweigui,shijishangshixingshixingshenhe。gaigeyihoudeguidinggengyanmi,shishizhixingshenhe: diyi,yaoanzhao(kyb、kyc、odd)sanyuanzeshenhe;dier,shenshenme、zenmeshen、heshishen、sheilaishendouyouyinxingzhutijueding,shideyinxingdeyiwuyuquanliyizhi;disan,waihuijugenjujianguanshijianrenweizhongyaodeyewu、fuzadeyewu,duiqidanzhengrengyoumingqueyaoqiu,guidingzhongyaodedanzhengyinxingbixushenhe,shaolejiushiweigui;disi,yinxingzaishenheguochengzhongjuedejiaoyizhenshixingbuqingchu、meiyoubawodeyewu,keyixiangkehuzhuijiadanzhengjinxingshenshenshencha;diwu,meibiyewushujubixuanguidingzhubishenbao,naruwaihuijujianguanxitong;diliu,yinxingyingdangbawaihuiguanliguidingjutiluoshidaoyewucaozuoguicheng,jiyinxingyingdangyoubaohanwaihuiguanliguidingdewaihuiyewucaozuoguicheng,erqieduiqizhongdewaihuiguanliguidingyingdanglijiezhengque,shijizhixingyeyaofuheguicheng。kejian,waihuiguanligaigeshijiaqiangleyinxingzhenshixingshenhehuanjiedeguanli,shuogaigehou“bushendanle”huo“yinxingshenhezhinengruohuashenzhiquewei”deshuofaxianranbunengchengli,shiduigaigedewujie。eryouwaihuiguanliyaoqiuyinxingwaihuiyewuluoshi“zhanyesanyuanze”,jiudechuwaihuiguanliyou“guizejianguan”zhuanbianchengle“yuanzejianguan”dejielungengshibutuodangde,huixingchengwudao。renheshihou,waihuijianguandoushiyouyuanze、youguizede,erqiegaigehoudejianguanyuanzegengqingchu、jianguanguizegengyanmi。buguo,baluoshi“zhanyesanyuanze”houdewaihuijianguanguinaweiyou“xingshixingjianguan”zhuanbianchengle“shizhixingjianguan”daoshiqiadangde,youzhuyuyinxinglijiezhenshixingshenhedeyiwu。

sishiyinxingshenhejiaoyidanzhengdezhenshixing。jiaoyidanzhengshikehushenqingbanliyewushitigongde,shijiaoyichanshengdeshangyedanzheng,ruguojiaoyidanzhengshizhenshide,neimejiaoyijiushizhenshide。suoyi,youyinxingduijiaoyidanzhengdezhenshixingjinxinghelishenchashiqiadangde、kexingde。tadehelixingzaiyu,yinxingzhanyeyou“sanyuanze”deyaoqiu,erqieyinxingshiyigezhuanyejigou,youzhuanyerenyuanhexitongshebei,duidanzhengshenheyouzhuanyenengli。congzheigeyiyishangjiang,shenduishiyinggaide,ershencuohuomeishenzeyingchengdanzeren。kejian,guoquyouwaihuijujutiguidingyinxingshenchadejiaoyidanzheng,kanqilaihenyange,qishishiyuezudaipao,boduoleyinxingquanliyiwudeyizhixing。zheidaozhiyinxingbeidongshenchahexingshishencha,shiyizhongshengyingdezuofa,buheshili。yinci,zaigaigeshizuolediaozheng,yihuiguigezidefalvdingwei。

泛亚电竞 wushiyuwaihuishouzhideyizhixing。jiwaihuishouzhifangxianghejineyujiaoyidanzhengxianshideyizhi。biru,jiaoyi10wanmeiyuan,xiangguanjiaoyidanzhengzhijianyingdangyizhi,qieshouhuozhidejineyingdangdengyuhuoxiaoyu10wanmeiyuan,dayu10wanmeiyuanjiushibuyizhi。

外汇局具体行使监督检查权

泛亚电竞 waihuijuzaixingshijiandujianchaquandeguochengzhong,zenmecainengpanduanyinxingshianzhao“zhanyesanyuanze”lvxingle“zhenshixingshencha”deyiwuni?shouxian,yingdanganzhaowuzuijiadingfali,tuidingyinxingbanliwaihuiyewudouzuolezhenshixingshencha,erqiedoushizuoduide;qici,kanduiyinxingzhutidejianchajieguo,ruguoyinxingmeiyouanzhaowaihuijudeguidingshencha、banliwaihuiyewu,huoqiyewaihuishouzhichuxianweigui,neimeyinxingbanligaibiwaihuiyewujiumeiyoujindaoshenchayiwu;zaici,yingdangjianghongguanrongrendu,anzhaohongguanguanliyinlingweiguanguanlideyuanze,danghongguanshouzhibujunheng、erqiebunengrongrenshi,shaixuangouchengbujunhengdeyinsuqiye,zaiyouqiyeshouzhiyuantouyanshenjianchadaoyinxingzhongjie。duiyinxingdejiandujiancha,yeyingdangyushijujin,jiangjiujianguandekexuexinghejianguanxiaolv。

yishiduiyinxingzhutijinxingjiancha。jianchayinxingzhuti,zuizhongyaodeshijianchayewucaozuoguicheng。yewucaozuoguichengshi“zhanyesanyuanze”deluodiguize,shiwaihuiguanlizhengcedechuandaojizhi,shizhenshixingshenchazerendefenjieluoshi,yeshijutiyewucaozuozhunqueyufoudeyiju。suoyi,bixujinxingbaokuoyixianeirongdeluojiyanmidejiancha: youmeiyouwaihuiyewucaozuoguicheng;youmeiyoubawaihuiguanliguidingjutiluoshidaoyewucaozuoguicheng;duiwaihuiguanliguidinglijieshifouzhengque;shijizhixingshifoufuheyewucaozuoguicheng;shifoujiuyewucaozuoguichengjinxinglepeixun;yewucaozuoguichengzhidinghexiudingchengxushifouzhengque。xianzaiyourenshuo“zhanyesanyuanze”buluodi,shijishanghendachengduyuanyumeiyouzhongshi“yewucaozuoguicheng”: waihuijuzaiduiyinxingjinxingjianchashi,wangwangshiyitouzhajinhailiangde、fenfanfuzadejutiyewujiqipingzhengzhong,huafeidaliangderenliwuli,erduiyuyinxing“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”zeguanzhubuduo。duiciyingdanggaijin,bukebenmodaozhi。

ershiduiyinxingjinxingyewujiancha。zheishiwaihuijudechuantongqiangxiang。yewujianchadeneirongbaokuo: waihuiyewucaozuoguichengzhixingqingkuang,tongguojianchahuochoucha,querenyewushijicaozuoshifoufuhecaozuoguicheng;yewushujubianhuaqingkuangshifouheli;yewuzhengceshifoufuhewaihuiguanliguiding。chuantongdepaichayeshijianchadeyizhongfangfa,danchengbenhenda,yincizaiyewuliangdadedifang,yingjiangqiyufeixianchangpaichajieheqilai,youzhenduixing、youmubiaofanweidijinxingjiancha,yitigaoxiaolv。

泛亚电竞 sanshiduiyinxingshujujinxinghecha。zheishichuangxindailaidejianguanshouduan。tongguogaigechuangxin,waihuijuyijianliqishujujiancepingtai,jiecikejinxinghoutaidejianceyufenxi,batiaoxianguanlideyewuanzhaoyinxingzhuti、qiyezhuti、guanlianzhutizhengheqilai。zheiyanggengyifaxianwenti,tigaojianguandeliandongxiaolv。

银行“展业三原则”与“外汇业务操作规程”

泛亚电竞 “lejienidekehu、lejienideyewu、helijinzhi”shiyinxingyeguojixingxinggui,huozheshuoshiguojiguanli。geguoyinxingjianguanbumenduicidouyoumingquedeguifan。tashiduiyinxingzuoshideyaoqiuhuozeren,meiyouzuodaojiushimeiyoujinzhi。anzhaosanyuanzeshenchazhenshixing,shijishangshicongxingshixingshenchashangshengdaoshizhixingshenchadeyaoqiu,qiqiantaicishi,zuoduileshiyinggaide,meizuoduihuomeiyouzuojiuyaochengdanzeren,suoyi,yinxingduicihenjinzhang。waihuiguanlishijiezhusanyuanzelaimingqueyinxingzhutidezeren,waihuiguanlibumenbuxuyao、yebukenengduisanyuanzejinxingxihua,fouzejiushihuashetianzu。

dangran,duiyu“zhanyesanyuanze”,yinxingyingdangxihua。yinxingbixujiang“zhanyeyuanze”zhuanhuawei“banshiguize”,yimingquechengxu、guifancaozuo、fenbiequanxian、luoshizeren。jiuwaihuiyewueryan,jiushiyinxingbixuzhiding“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”。zheiyidian,waihuijuzaifanyadianjingmaoyiwaihuiguanligaigeshiyouyanmideanpai。《fanyadianjingmaoyiwaihuiguanlizhiyin》diqitiaomingqueguiding,“jinrongjigouyingdanggenjubenzhiyinjixiangguanguidingzhidingneibuguanlizhidu,mingquexiangguanyewucaozuoguicheng,binganzhaoguojiawaihuiguanliguidingjishibaogaoxiangguanwaihuishouzhixinxi,baogaoyichang、keyixiansuo”;《fanyadianjingmaoyiwaihuiguanlizhiyinshishixize》disitiaodisankuanmingqueguiding,“jinrongjigouyingdanganzhaolejienidekehu、lejienideyewudeyuanzehelijinzhi”;diwutiaomingqueguiding“jinrongjigouyingjiang《zhiyin》hebenxizedengxiangguanguidingluoshidaozishenyewucaozuoguichengzhong,guifanjutiyewucaozuo”。danyihandeshi,gediwaihuijuheyinxingdui“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”tiaokuanzhongshichengdubuyi,daozhi“zhanyesanyuanze”yu“yewucaozuoguicheng”weinengshixianduijie,“zhanyesanyuanze” wufaluodi。suoyi,“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”feichangzhongyao,tajishiwaihuiguanlizhengcedechuandaojizhi,yeshiyinxingzhutiluoshi“zhanyesanyuanze”dejutitixian。zhiyouyoule“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”,caishijiangyinxingzhutiyiwufenjie、xihuadaoleduiyinggangwei;zhiyouyoule“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”,caishijiangwaihuiguanlizhengcechuandaoluoshidaolecaozuohuanjie;zhiyouyoule“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”,caishijiangyinxingzhutidezerenfenjie、luoshidaolezhixingrenyuan。ruguomeiyou“waihuiyewucaozuoguicheng”,yinxingjiushimeiyouluoshi“zhanyesanyuanze”,yinxingyejiumeiyoujindaoyiwu。

(本文仅代表作者个人观点)

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