泛亚电竞

信用证项下的欺诈例外及银行的应对策略

来源:泛亚电竞_泛亚电竞app怎么下载-官网APP下载 《中国外汇》2020年第22期 作者:李永宏 编辑:韩英彤
如何妥善处理信用证欺诈,如何正确把握“欺诈例外”原则,对银行而言至关重要。

泛亚电竞 zhangqiyilai,xinyongzhengyewuyizhishiguojijiesuanyumaoyirongzidejichuyuzhongjian。benqifanyadianjingyaoqinglejiweizhuanjiajiuxinyongzhengyewudeyaodian、nandianjizhongdianzhankaitaolun,jiuxinyongzhengxiangxiadeqizhaliwaijiqiyingdui、zhidingyinxingdeshanyiyifu、yunshudanjuxiangguandefalvwentijijiayuanqixinyongzhengdeshibiedengzhuanyewentijinxingleshenrufenxi,gongtongyejiejian。

 

xinyongzhengxiangxiakaizhengxingduizhengdiandanjubukechexiaodefukuanzeren,shixinyongzhenglaiyicunzaidegenben。《gendanxinyongzhengtongyiguanli》(ucp600)diqitiaoguiding,zhiyaojiangguidingdedanjutijiaojizhidingyinxinghuokaizhengxing,bingqiegouchengxiangfujiaodan,zekaizhengxingbixuchengfu。raner,xinyongzhengshiwuzhongtongshiguanchuanzheyitiao“qizhaliwai”yuanze,jiruguoxinyongzhengjiaoyizhongcunzaiqizhaxingwei,zejishishoudaozhengdiandanju,kaizhengxingrengrankeyibaituofukuanzeren。guanyu“qizhaliwai”,ucp600bingwutiji,yinxingmianduiqizhawangwangshizuoyouweinan,ruchulibushen,yinxingkenengjuanrushangyejiufenshenzhizaoshouzhongdasunshi。ruhetuoshanchulixinyongzhengqizha,ruhezhengquebawo“qizhaliwai”yuanze,duiyinxingeryanzhiguanzhongyao。

关于欺诈和止付的界定

shouxianyaojiejuedewentishiruhejiedingqizha?qizhaderendingzhinengyoufayuancaijue,renheqiyeheyinxingdoumeiyoujuedingquan。genjufanyadianjingguozuigaorenminfayuan《guanyushenlixinyongzhengjiufenanjianruoganwentideguiding》(fashi〔2005〕13hao)dibatiaoguiding,“fanyouxialieqingxingzhiyide,yingdangrendingcunzaixinyongzhengqizha: (yi)shouyirenweizaodanjuhuozhetijiaojizaineirongxujiadedanju;(er)shouyireneyibujiaofuhuowuhuozhejiaofudehuowuwujiazhi;(san)shouyirenhekaizhengshenqingrenhuozheqitadisanfangchuantongtijiaojiadanju,ermeiyouzhenshidejichujiaoyi;(si)qitajinxingxinyongzhengqizhadeqingxing”。kejian,zuigaoyuanduiqizhaderendingzaihuowuhedanjufangmianshezhileyidingdebiyaotiaojian。jiuhuowueryan,bixushishouyirenweifahuohuozhehuowuwujiazhi。yangedishuo,yidingchengduzhineidehuowuzhiliangjiufenshangbunenggouchengqizha。jiudanjueryan,shouyirenweizaodanju、tijiaomeiyouzhenshijichujiaoyidexujiadanjugouchengqizha。kaizhengshenqingrenrufaxianshouyirenyouqizhamiaotou,jiubixuzaikaizhengxingfukuanzhiqianshoujidaozugouzhengju,xiangdifangfayuanshenqingzhifuling,zuzhikaizhengxingfukuan。zhifulingbixuzaikaizhengxingshoudaozhengdiandanjuhouwugegongzuorizhineinadao,zheiduishenqingreneryannandujuda。

qici,qianfazhifulingdeyijushishenme?zuigaofayuanduiqianfazhifulingyoushifenyangedexianding。genjufashi〔2005〕13haowenjiandishitiaoguiding,“renminfayuanrendingcunzaixinyongzhengqizhade,yingdangcaidingzhongzhizhifuhuozhepanjuezhongzhizhifuxinyongzhengxiangxiakuanxiang,danyouxialieqingxingzhiyidechuwai: (yi)kaizhengxingdezhidingren、shouquanrenyiankaizhengxingzhilingshanyidijinxinglefukuan;(er)kaizhengxinghuoqizhidingren、shouquanrenyiduixinyongzhengxiangxiadepiaojushanyichengdui;(san)baoduixingshanyidilvxinglefukuanyiwu;(si)yifuxingshanyidijinxingleyifu”。

泛亚电竞 genjuzuigaoyuandeyishangjieshi,jishicunzaiqizha,ruguokaizhengxingyijingfukuanhuochengdui,huozhexinyongzhengjiaoyiliantiaozhongcunzaishanyidisanfangyijingjinxinglefukuanhuoyifu,zefayuanbuyingqianfazhifuling。juci,yuanqixinyongzhengxiangxiakaizhengxingchengduihoubunengzhifu,xiandeyouxieyushiwutuojie。genjuguojiguanli,yuanqizhengxiangxiakaizhengxingzaishoudaozhengdiandanju5gegongzuorineibixuchengdui,erzheishiwangwanghuowubingweidaogang,maifangyibanbudakenengshoujidaomaifangqizhadezugouzhengju。yaoxiangzaikaizhengxingchengduizhiqianchenggongshenqingdaozhifuling,duimaifangeryanjibenshangshiyijianbukenengwanchengderenwu。lingwai,suirancongbaohushanyidisanrendejiaoduchufa,yifuxingyifuzhihoubudeqianfazhifulingsiyoubiyao;ranerzaishiwuzhong,youyumaifangzaishenqingzhifuzhishi,xinyongzhengxiangxiajiaodanshifoubeiyifuwangwangbingbuqingchu;jiashangguojishanghuirenwei,kaizhengxingwuquanyaoqiuduifangchujuyijingyifudexiangguanzhengju,congerjifayuanpandingshifouqianfazhifulingdailailezhangaihemafan。erqie,ruguomaifangxuyiqizha,wangwangzaishoudaokaizhengxingchengduihoudiyishijianbanliyifu,ranhoujuankuanqiantao。zaizheizhongqingkuangxia,ruojinzhiqianfazhifuling,zemaifangqizhazaochengdesunshijiangwanquanzhuanjiajilemaifanghekaizhengxing,keguanshangbangzhuleshouyirenshishiqizha,youdianzhuzhouweinvedeweidao。yiner,difangfayuanzaiqianfazhifulingdeshihouwangwangjiyuzonghekaolv,kaizhengxingchengduihuoyifuxingyifuzhihouqianfazhifulingdeqingkuangbingbushaojian。

欺诈止付项下开证行如何应对

kaizhengxingshoudaozhengdianjiaodanhuozheyijingchengduiyihou,mianduifayuanqianfadezhifulingyinggairuhechuli?shijianchifukuanhaishiduiwaijufu?zaita736revheta 880revlianggeanlizhong,guojishanghuijichuleguanfangyijian: yishikaizhengxingbunenghushizhifuling,bixuzunxunzhifulingdezhiling;ershikaizhengxingbunengbuzuowei,yinggaiqingqiufayuanjiechuzhifuling;sanshiyijingshanyifukuandebeizhidingyinxingyinggaidedaobaohu,maimaishuangfangdejiufenbuyingyingxiangdaoqidedaokaizhengxingchangfudequanli。

dangran,fayuanweibihuitingquyinxingdejianyijiechuzhifuling,danzhiyaokaizhengxingxiangfayuanzuochuletijiaoshenqingdedongzuo,wulunjieguoruhe,guojishanghuirenwei,kaizhengxingyijingjindaolelisuonengjidezeren。

泛亚电竞 zaizuixingongbudeta906anlizhong,guojishanghuihaitidao,ruguofayuandezhifulingzhishidongjiekaizhengshenqingrendezhanghu,erbushimingquejinzhikaizhengxingduiwaifukuan,zekaizhengxingrengranbixulvxingfukuanzeren。kejian,zhifulingdecuocizhiguanzhongyao,bixushimingquejinzhikaizhengxingfukuanerbujinjinshijinzhikaizhengshenqingrenfukuandezhifuling,cainengzuoweiyinxingjufudeyiju。raner,zaikehuzhanghudongjiedeqingkuangxia,kaizhengxingruxuanzeyongziyouzijindiankuanzhifu,xuyukehuchongfengoutongbingwanshanxiangguanshouxu,yifangfanzijinfengxian。

xuyaoqiangdiaodeshi,kaizhengxingxingshi“qizhaliwai”dequanli,zhinengyijujuyoufalvxiaolidezhifulinghuopanjueshu,erbunengjinpingshenqingrendeyimianzhicihuozhekehudanfangmiantigongdezhengju。lingwai,jishishoudaozhifuling,kaizhengxingyebingfeiyongjiubaituolexinyongzhengxiangxiadefukuanzeren。zhifulingtongchangjuyouyidingqixian,yibanbuhuichaoguobannian。ruguoxiaoqiguohoufayuanjujueyanqi,zekaizhengxingrengranbixufukuan。suoyi,maifangbixuzaizhifulingshengxiaoqineitongguoxieshang、zhongcaihuosusongdefangshijinkuaijiejuejiufen,yiweihuzishenquanyi,bangzhukaizhengxingtuolijiongjing。

kaizhengxingruhebimianxinyongzhengqizha?mianduiqizhazhifuruheyingdui?bizhezongjieyixiajidiangongcankao:

diyi,fanghuanyuweiran。kaizhengqianzixishenchajiaoyibeijing,lejiejiaoyishuangfangdelishijilu;jinliangzhengqukailiduiyongdidianzaikaizhengxingjutaifukuandexinyongzheng,yizhangwozhudong,bimianchuxianyifuxing;laidanshizixishenhedanju,rufaxianyouqizhadezhusimaji,kaizhengxingyingjinliangzhaodaobufudianduiwaijufu。

泛亚电竞 dier,jiaqianggoutongyuxiediao。jiaqiangyukehudegoutong,xunqiukehudepeihe,biyaoshiyaoqiukehuchengnuochengdanzhifukenengjiyinxingdailaidefengxianhesunshi;jiaqiangyujingwaijidanxinghuoyifuxingdegoutong,jishilvxinggaozhiyiwu,biyaoshijiangzhifulingdefubenfasongjiduifangyinxing,yixunqiulijie;jiaqiangyudifangfayuandegoutong,biyaoshixiangfayuantichujiechuzhifulingdeshumianqingqiu。

泛亚电竞 disan,jinfangyinxingzijinsunshi。zaijiufenwanquanjiejuezhiqian,kaizhengxingyidingyaokongzhihaokehudebaozhengjinheshouxinedu,budetiqianshifang,yimianzuihoushenqingrenkenengbaisuerjiyinxingdailaizijinsunshi。

disi,tigaozishendekangyanengli。kaizhengxingzaimianlinqizha、shoudaozhifulingdeqingkuangxia,yingbaochidingli,bukecaolvxingshi,yaozuohaodachijiuzhandesixiangzhunbei。chengduizhihoudaoqibunengfukuan,kaizhengxinghuimianlinlaizijingwaiduofangmiandezhuisuoyali,shenzhikenengshoudaoshouyirenhuoyifuxingdeqisu。tebieshizaijingwaisheyoufenxingdeyinxingbeiqisudekenengxinggengda,panjuejieguokenengjiyinxingdailaizijinsunshiheshengyusunshi。kaizhengxingxuyaozaikehuliyi、dailixingguanxiheyinxingzishenliyizhijianzhaodaopinghengdian,zuizhongxuanzeyigexiangduiyoulidecaozuocelve。

欺诈例外的例外与议付行的窘境

泛亚电竞 conglilunshangjiang,shanyiyifudeyinxingyinggaishoudaofalvbaohu,zheijiushisuowei“qizhaliwaideliwai”yuanze。ucpmingquelekaizhengxingduibeizhidingyinxingjuyoubuketuixiedechangfuzeren,fanyadianjingguozuigaofayuanyeyaoqiuzaicunzaishanyiyifudeqingkuangxiafayuanbudeqianfazhifuling。dangeguofalvbujinxiangtong、difangfayuandezuofayeqianchawanbie,xinyongzhengxiangxiadanjubeiyifuzhihouzaodaofayuanzhifudeanlilvjianbuxian。

zaichuxianqizhazhifudeqingkuangxia,xiangduiyukaizhengxingeryan,yifuxingkenenggengjiajiaolv,yinweitamianduideshirongzikuanxiangdezhijiesunshi。dangran,genjuxieyi,zaikaizhengxingjufudeqingkuangxia,yifuxingkeyixiangshouyirenzhuisuo,danzaixuyizhapiandebeijingxia,shouyirenyaomejuankuanqiantao、yaomeshenqingpochandaobi,yifuxingchenggongzhuisuodekenengxingbuda。zuizhongyifuxingweiyouzhuibikaizhengxingfukuan,shenzhijiangqigaoshangfating,juanrukuangrichijiudeguansizhizhong。danshi,falvsusongbujinchengbengaoang,erqiepanjuejieguojuyouhendadebuquedingxing。zaiguoneijigezhumingdexinyongzhengqizhapanlizhong,zuizhongjieguodoushiyiyifuxingbaisushouchang。

zaiaoxinyinxingqisuningbodangdiduojiakaizhengxingdexinyongzhengzhapiananzhong,xinyongzhengzongjinegaoda8000wanmeiyuan,aoxinyinxingduikaizhengxingchengduidexinyongzhengzuoleyifu,danyinshouyirenshexianqizha,shenqingrenchenggongnadaoledifangfayuanqianfadezhifuling,kaizhengxingjujuefukuan。cianjingningbozhongyuan、zhejianggaoyuan、zuigaoyuansanshen,zuizhongpanjuejieguoyizhi,renweiaoxinyinxingdeyifubugoucheng“shanyi”yifu,“qizhaliwaideliwai”yuanzebushiyong,kaizhengxingjufuchengli。fayuanrenwei: “aoxinyinxingzhijiecanyulekehurongzitaoxianfangandesheji,weishouyirenshixianfeifarongzimudechuangzaobingtigonglebianlitiaojian;suiranmeiyouzhengjuzhengmingaoxinyinxingzhijiecanyulexinyongzhengqizha,danzheibingbuyingxiangduiqiyifuxingweibingfeishanyiderending”。aoxinyinxingyouyuduijiaoyibeijingdezhenshixingweijindao“helishenshen”deshenhezhize,qi“yifu”xingweibushoufalvbaohu,zuizhongbaisu,zaoshouzhongdasunshi。

泛亚电竞 zaisuzhoumouxing(yifuxing)suningbomouxing(kaizhengxing)deguoneixinyongzhengqizhajiufenanzhong,xinyongzhengjine999wanyuanrenminbi,zuizhongpanjuejieguoyeshiyifuxingbaisu。youqudeshi,gaianyishenheershenfayuanyefenbieshiningbozhongyuanhezhejianggaoyuan。fayuanrenwei,yifuxingzaiyifuxijiedechulishangcaozuobuguifan,gouchengxiaci,yinerpandingyifuxingbingwei“shiji”yifu,congerbushishanyidisanren。wentizhuyaochuzaixinyongzhengdebeipishang,qizhongdexijiebaokuo: yifuxingzaixinyongzhengbeimianbeipideyifushijianyushijifangkuanshijianbuyizhi(xiangcha1tian)、beipiyifudeshijianzaoyukaizhengxingchengduiri(xiangcha1tian)、beipideyifujineyushijifangkuanjinebuyizhi(xiangchabudao1wanyuan)。jinguanyifuxingtaochulezhenjinbaiyin,ziyiweizaigaizhengxiangxiazuole“yifu”,danyinyixiecaozuoxijiedexiacidaozhibaisu,mengshoujudazijinsunshi。

youcikejian,yifubingbujiandan。duiyifuxingeryan,ruhezuodao“shanyiyifu”zhiguanzhongyao。bizherenweiguanjianyaozuohaoyixiajidian: yishiyaoquedingzijiyifuxingdehefashenfen,yifubixuzaizhengdianjiaodanhuokaizhengxingchengduihoucaozuo;ershiyaozhuyiyifudecaozuoxijie,zhuyixinyongzhengbeipi、kehuxieyitiaokuan、xiangguanyewupingzhengyaosutianxiecaozuoguifan,yimianyincaozuoxiacidaozhiyifushixiao;sanshiyao“helishenshen”shenchajiaoyibeijingdezhenshixing,tebieshibuyaohaoweirenshi,bangzhuqiyeshejixinyongzhengtaolifangan;“wuzhizhewuwei”,ruguoyinxingduiqizhawanquan“wuzhi”,zeke“wuwei”juanrufalvjiufen。

泛亚电竞 chuquebao“shanyi”yifuwai,yinxingyifuqianhaibixuzuohaokyc,lejiekehuhekehudejiaoyiduishou。duiyumoshengde、zixinbuhaode、huojiaoyibeijingcunyidekehu,bujianyibanliyifuyewu。ruguoyifuxingmangmuyilaikaizhengxingdechengduidianwenerhushiduikehuzixinhejiaoyibeijingdeshencha,zekenengmianlinyinjiaoyiqizhadaozhidezijinsunshi。lingwai,yinxingyushouyirenqiandingdeyifuxieyiyidingyaomingquexiangyouzhuisuoquan,zaikaizhengxingjufudediyishijiankouhuashouyirenzhanghu,huoshixingzichanbaoquan,yizhangwozhudong,bimianzaoshouzijinsunshi。

xinyongzhengyewujinnianlaichengzhunianxiajiangqushi,suiyouzhuduoyuanyin,danqizhachanshengdefumianyingxiangyingshizhongyaoyuanyinzhiyi。ucpguoyuqiangdiaokaizhengxingfukuandedulixing、qiangdiaoyinxingbiaomianshendanyuanze、qiangdiaoyinxingbujierujichujiaoyi,keguanshangweishouyirenqizhatigonglebianli,bufafenziliyongxinyongzhengguizeloudongpianquyinxingrongzideqingkuangshiyoufasheng。yaojiejuezheigejishounanti,xuyaoqiye、yinxing、fayuangefangdegongtongnuli,guojishanghuizaiguizezhidingfangmianyexuyaozuochugengduogaijin。

zuozheximinshengyinxingdanzhengzhuanjiajiandanzhengguanlizhongxinzongjingli、icc chinaxinyongzhengzhuanjia、guojishanghuidocdexzhuanjia

 

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